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Oral Cancer

Overview

Oral cancer is a abnormal proliferation of cell in the oral tissues. This oral tissue include following structures like floor of the mouth, roof of the mouth( palate), gums or gingiva,lips,tongue,teeth. The cancer in the lining of oral cavity is known as squamous cell carcinoma.Oral caner can also be secondary in nature if the leison is distant from the site.It can also arise from cancers that arise in the maxillary sinus, nasal cavity.Oral cancer may originate from the salivary glands called as adenocarcinoma(cancerous condition in the glands or when a cancer grows in a glandular pattern from epithelial cells then, it is known as adenocarcinoma) or it may
arise from lymph nodes in the tonsil..if oral cancer spreads to the lungs, the cancer cells in the lungs are actually oral cancer cells. The disease is metastatic oral cancer, not lung cancer. It is treated as oral cancer, not lung cancer..this is metastasis of oral cancer.Oral cancer is more common in men than in women, more common in blacks than whites, Commonly occur in the population who is more than 50 years of age..Oral sub mucus fibrosis is the major problem in India which characterize by the deposition of fibrous material on the sub mucus membrane of the oral cavity.This causes difficulty in the opening of mouth and then it further leads to the difficulty in the eating the normal diet..This condition can progress to oral cancer.


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Causes

All those substances which cause irritation in the mouth and finally causes the mutation in the DNA which can be a cancerous condition.Following can be the causes..

Tobacco:tobacco chewing is the common practice in the many parts of world.About 75% of the oral cancers are due to tobacco.Tobacco contains at least 19 known carcinogens which can cause cancer. Tobacco after combustion can create irritation in the mucus membrane by its smoke but it creates much more irritation to the mucus membrane when
it is chewed..So, chewing the tobacco could be more dangerous than smoking the tobacco..

Alcohol:This is the another risk factor for the oral cancer.Even the mouth washes which contain alcohol is also harmful.An exposure to this in the form of mouth washes can lead to cancer.Alcohol when metabolized to acetaldehyde is even more harmful.

Human papilloma virus:This is another sole causative organism for the cancer in oral cavity.Strain responsible for it is HPV16.HPV is also responsible for the cervical cancer.This virus has 120 strains but type 16 and 18 is the most dangerous form.


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Signs & Symptoms

Symptoms include: White patches on the lips or on the inner side of mouth.Patches may be red coloured(erythroplakia) or may be white(leucoplakia); Bleeding from the mouth; Difficulty or pain when swallowing; A lump in neck; An earache could be possible as there is auditory tube which connects the middle ear and nasopharynx) Lump formed is initially painless but in later stages it become painful with burning sensation Lump is usually small.

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Prevention

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Treatments
Chemotherapy Modern Medicine

Other treatment includes the chemotherapy in which a biologic agent like CETUXIMAB. This is an effective treatment in case of head and neck cancers. Radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy is effective.

Rehabilitation Psychotherapy

Management of disease also includes the rehabilitation of patient. This is the process of restoration of skills by a person who has had an illness or injury so as to regain maximum self-sufficiency and function in a normal or as near normal manner as possible.

Surgery Modern Medicine

Surgery can be a perfect treatment and chances of survival in stage1 is more than any other stage,it is about 90%.That's why emphasis is more on initial diagnosis to increase the survival rate..surgical removal of leison is included in the surgical procedure. Following procedures are:

Mandibulectomy(removal of mandible, a bone)

glossectomy or removal of tongue

Radical neck dissection

Maxillectomy

Laryngectomy

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